The Secret No One Told You About Corona Virus Vaccine!!

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The Secret that no one told you about Corona Virus Vaccine. As the Corona Virus is spreading with ever increasing rates. The only hope for humans. And here are the top developments regarding many vaccines in trial. I will tell you all ins and outs about all the countries trying to make vaccine and there development so far. So lets get started and uncover the secrets that no one told you about Corona Virus Vaccine.

The story of Corona Virus So far:

On April 23, Oxford University initiated a phase-1 human clinical trial of its vaccine — ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 — against the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2. A single dose of the candidate vaccine will be administered to 1,112 healthy volunteers to study the safety, ability to produce immune response and efficacy of the vaccine. Oxford University is optimistic of a positive outcome of the candidate vaccine and has planned to get millions of doses of the vaccine before the end of the year even as results of the final phase of the trial (phase-3) are awaited. The vaccine candidate was developed by the University’s Jenner Institute which began trials in humans on April 23 jointly with the University’s Oxford Vaccine Group.

How was the vaccine being tested constructed?

The vaccine, ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, uses the common cold virus (adenovirus) that causes infections in chimpanzees. The adenovirus has been genetically altered so that it does not grow once injected. The construct carries the genetic material of the novel coronavirus that makes the spike protein. The spike protein is found on the surface of the virus and plays a crucial role in binding to specific human receptors found on cell surfaces and entering the cells.

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By introducing the genetic material of the spike protein, the candidate vaccine will help the body recognise it and make antibodies against the spike protein. The antibodies produced will help mount an immune response and prevent the virus from entering the human cells and causing an infection.

Novel Coronavirus Information Center

Oxford University has used vaccines made from the adenovirus construct to over 320 people and has found it to be safe and well tolerated. It does cause transient side effects such as a fever, headache or a sore arm but is otherwise safe.

Has it been tested on animals?

The adenovirus construct has been used by Oxford University researchers to test safety for both the 2002 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). Once the safety of the MERS vaccine was proven in a trial carried out in the U.K., a trial began in December last year in Saudi Arabia, where MERS outbreaks occur frequently.

The safety of the candidate vaccine was earlier tested on six rhesus macaque monkeys.

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A single dose protected all the six animals for nearly a month even when exposed to high levels of the virus, boosting the confidence of the researchers.

What is the process of the clinical trial?

Up to 1,112 healthy volunteers from Oxford, Southampton, London and Bristol have been recruited for the phase-1 trial. Volunteers, both male and female between 18-55 years, are being recruited for the trial. A single dose of the candidate vaccine will be administered to volunteers. The participants will be randomly assigned to receive either the candidate vaccine (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) or a ‘control’, the MenACWY vaccine, for comparison.

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Oxford University is using the MenACWY vaccine — that protects against four strains of meningococcal bacteria — rather than a saline control. The participants will not know if he or she received a candidate vaccine or not. The university researchers will also be testing two doses of the candidate vaccine given four weeks apart on a small group of 10 volunteers to assess the dosage and immune response.

What is the timeline for the trial?

The phase-1 trial is expected to be completed in end-May if transmission remains high in the community. The phase-2 trial may be completed by August-September. According to Suresh Jadhav, Executive Director of the Pune-based Serum Institute of India Pvt. Ltd., phase-2 and phase-3 trials may get combined if the phase-1 trial results are encouraging.

Israel and Italy Claim Breakthroughs in Fight against Covid-19 with Their Vaccines

1)  What are the claims made by Israel’s defence ministry about its vaccine?

Israel’s Defence Minister Naftali Bennett said scientists at the Israel Institute of Biological Research (IIBR) had developed an antibody to COVID-19. Bennett claimed it was a “significant breakthrough” and that researchers are moving to patent and mass-produce the potential treatment.

The IIBR is a secretive organisation that works directly under the Israel Prime Minister’s Office. The Times of Israel reported that the antibody’s development had been completed and that researchers will approach international companies to produce the antibody on a commercial scale. However, the report also said that the antibodies were yet to be tested on humans.

2) What are the claims made by the Italian biotech firm?

Takis in collaboration with Applied DNA Sciences Inc. is working on a vaccine. The company was carrying out animal studies at the Lazzaro Spallanzani National Institute for Infectious Diseases in Rome. It said on Wednesday that during animal studies their vaccine produced antibodies that had a neutralising effect on the virus, according to the Associated Press. Dr Luigi Aurisicchio, CEO and chief scientific officer at Takis, reportedly said: “Thanks to the Spallanzani’s kills, as far as we know, we are among the first in the world to have demonstrated the neutralisation of the coronavirus by a vaccine. We believe this will also happen in humans.”

According to reports, the company is likely to commence human trials soon. The DNA-based vaccine was able to produce an antibody response against the spoke protein of the virus in mice.

3) What is the WHO’s solidarity trial?

To integrate some of the overlapping efforts of scientists from across the world to find an effective treatment for the novel coronavirus, the World Health Organization (WHO) launched an international ‘solidarity clinical trial’. This will compare four treatment options against the standard of care to assess their relative effectiveness against COVID-19, it said. One of the crucial reasons behind this effort is to expedite the process of trials and increase its scale.

It usually takes years to design and conduct clinical trials for emerging diseases. WHO said the solidarity trial will reduce this by 80%.

“Enrolling patients in one single randomised trial will help facilitate the rapid worldwide comparison of unproven treatments. This will overcome the risk of multiple small trials not generating the strong evidence needed to determine the relative effectiveness of potential treatments,” it said. Over 100 countries are working together on this issue.

Based on evidence from laboratory, animal and clinical studies, Remdesivir, Lopinavir/Ritonavir, Lopinavir/Ritonavir with Interferon beta-1a and Chloroquine, or Hydroxychloroquine were the options selected for the trials.

Saksham Bakshi
  • Saksham Bakshi

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