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Coffee And Lifestyle

Sonal ShrivastavaLast Seen: Apr 14, 2024 @ 10:49pm 22AprUTC
Sonal Shrivastava
@Sonal-Shrivastava

10th March 2024 | 7 Views
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Coffee 

  • Coffee is considered a high-class activity among many youths. It’s a trendy drink worldwide, alongside tea and water. Coffee is a non-alcoholic, aromatic, flavourful brew that tastes palatable.
  • The two popular varieties of coffee are Arabica and Robusta. Robusta is also known as Coffea canephora (Eira et al., 2006; Myhrvold, 2022). 
  • Besides caffeine coffee contains other bioactive compounds such as polyphenols, minerals (potassium, magnesium), and vitamins (niacin).

Moderate Consumption

  • People consume coffee to increase fluid intake. Coffee is a sort of energy drink.  Its moderate consumption temporarily relieves depression. Its caffeine content acts as a psychostimulant and increases dopamine levels in the brain. It removes drowsiness and increases alertness and the ability to concentrate. It enhances mood (Harvard School of Public Health, 2019).
  • Coffee consumption is becoming a part of a healthy lifestyle. Many studies suggest the multiple health benefits of regular coffee consumption at moderate levels. Its moderate consumption has been linked to reduced risks of Cardiovascular diseases (Simon et al., 2022), type 2 diabetes, cancers, and Parkinson’s disease (Harvard School of Public Health, 2019; Myhrvold, 2022; Higdon & Frei, 2006). It reduces cognitive decline (Ritchie et al., 2007).
  • Polyphenols in coffee exhibit antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory properties (Hutachok et al., 2020).
  • Coffee increases metabolic rate and suppresses appetite. Coffee is neither the cause of weight gain nor the cause of diabetes; it’s the sugar and cream used as additives to enhance its taste (Berg, 2022; Tan, 2003) 

Excessive Intake

  • Although caffeine is considered safe, consuming  3-4 cups of coffee a day containing not more than 300-400 mg of caffeine is safe for adults (Higdon & Frei, 2006), its excessive intake is a cause for concern. It can be a cause of Insomnia, restlessness, and anxiety (Harvard School of Public Health, 2019). 
  • Heavy coffee drinking has many side effects, including reduced bone mineral density (Chen et al., 2023). It may reduce calcium absorption. It increases the urinary excretion of minerals such as sodium, calcium, and magnesium (Ratajczak et al., 2021).
  • Decaffeinated coffee is not free from caffeine but contains a lower amount of caffeine (Berg, 2022). 
  • Coffee increases blood pressure for the time being. Excessive consumption can make it chronic (Jee et al., 1999; Kujawska et al., 2021; Klag et al., 2002). However recent studies do not suggest any potential negative outcomes of regular and habitual coffee consumption (Miranda et al., 2020). Even studies suggest a negative association of hypertension with regular consumption of coffee. It reduces hypertension (Xie et al., 2018). 
  • Pregnant and lactating mothers should avoid it. Caffeine crosses the placenta among pregnant ladies. Caffeine is transferred to breast milk (Reyes & Cornelis, 2018).
  • Many studies suggest that caffeine above a certain level increases urine output. It may result in dehydration. However, it has little effect on an otherwise healthy person (Zhang et al., 2015). A healthy individual can consume between 300-400 mg of caffeine (Lone et al., 2023). 
  • If you are a regular drinker of coffee, do not give up suddenly (Harvard School of Public Health, 2019). It may result in withdrawal symptoms.

Coffee drinking is not harmful. It’s safe for people, except for pregnant, lactating mothers or women at risk of fractures even if taken in excess. It has many benefits. Enjoy coffee, but don’t make it an addiction.

References:

  1. Eira, M. T. S., Silva, E. A. A. da, De Castro, R. D., Dussert, S., Walters, C., Bewley, J. D., & Hilhorst, H. W. M. (2006). Coffee seed physiology. Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology, 18(1), 149–163. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1677-04202006000100011

  2. Myhrvold, N. (2022). Coffee | beverage | Britannica. In Encyclopædia Britannica. https://www.britannica.com/topic/coffee
  3. Harvard School of Public Health. (2019, January 8). Coffee. The Nutrition Source. https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/food-features/coffee/
  4. Ritchie, K., Carrière, I., de Mendonca, A., Portet, F., Dartiques, J. F., Rouaud, O., et al. (2007). The neuroprotective effects of caffeine: a prospective population study (the Three City Study). Neurology 69, 536–545. doi:10.1212/01.wnl.0000266670.35219.0
  5. Favrod-Coune, T., & Broers, B. (2010). The Health Effect of Psychostimulants: A Literature Review. Pharmaceuticals (Basel, Switzerland), 3(7), 2333–2361. https://doi.org/10.3390/ph3072333
  6. Simon, J., Fung, K., Raisi-Estabragh, Z., Aung, N., Khanji, M. Y., Kolossváry, M., Merkely, B., Munroe, P. B., Harvey, N. C., Piechnik, S. K., Neubauer, S., Petersen, S. E., & Maurovich-Horvat, P. (2022). Light to moderate coffee consumption is associated with lower risk of death: a UK Biobank study. European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, 29(6). https://doi.org/10.1093/eurjpc/zwac008 

  7. Hutachok, N., Angkasith, P., Chumpun, C., Fucharoen, S., Mackie, I. J., Porter, J. B., & Srichairatanakool, S. (2020). Anti-Platelet Aggregation and Anti-Cyclooxygenase Activities for a Range of Coffee Extracts (Coffea arabica). Molecules (Basel, Switzerland)26(1), 10. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26010010
  8. Tan, D. S. (2003). Coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The Lancet, 361(9358), 702. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(03)12582-2
  9. Higdon, J. V., & Frei, B. (2006). Coffee and Health: A Review of Recent Human Research. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 46(2), 101–123. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408390500400009

  10. Reyes, C. M., & Cornelis, M. C. (2018). Caffeine in the Diet: Country-Level Consumption and Guidelines. Nutrients10(11), 1772. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10111772
  11. Kujawska, A., Kujawski, S., Hajec, W., Skierkowska, N., Kwiatkowska, M., Husejko, J., Newton, J. L., Simoes, J. A., Zalewski, P., & Kędziora-Kornatowska, K. (2021). Coffee Consumption and Blood Pressure: Results of the Second Wave of the Cognition of Older People, Education, Recreational Activities, Nutrition, Comorbidities, and Functional Capacity Studies (COPERNICUS). Nutrients13(10), 3372. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13103372
  12. Jee, S. H., He, J., Whelton, P. K., Suh, I., & Klag, M. J. (1999). The Effect of Chronic Coffee Drinking on Blood Pressure. Hypertension, 33(2), 647–652. https://doi.org/10.1161/01.hyp.33.2.647

  13. Zhang, Y., Coca, A., Casa, D. J., Antonio, J., Green, J. M., & Bishop, P. A. (2015). Caffeine and diuresis during rest and exercise: A meta-analysis. Journal of science and medicine in sport18(5), 569–574. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2014.07.017
  14. Xie, C., Cui, L., Zhu, J. et al. Coffee consumption and risk of hypertension: a systematic review and dose–response meta-analysis of cohort studies. J Hum Hypertens 32, 83–93 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41371-017-0007-0
  15. Klag, M. J., Wang, N.-Y., Meoni, L. A., Brancati, F. L., Cooper, L. A., Liang, K.-Y., Young, J. H., & Ford, D. E. (2002). Coffee Intake and Risk of Hypertension. Archives of Internal Medicine, 162(6), 657. https://doi.org/10.1001/archinte.162.6.657

  16. Miranda, A. M., Goulart, A. C., Benseñor, I. M., Lotufo, P. A., & Marchioni, D. M. (2020). Coffee consumption and risk of hypertension: A prospective analysis in the cohort study. Clinical Nutrition, 40(2). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2020.05.052

  17. Berg, S. (2022, July 8). What doctors wish patients knew about the impact of caffeine. American Medical Association. https://www.ama-assn.org/delivering-care/public-health/what-doctors-wish-patients-knew-about-impact-caffeine

  18. Chen, C.-C., Shen, Y.-M., Li, S.-B., Huang, S.-W., Kuo, Y.-J., & Chen, Y.-P. (2023). Association of Coffee and Tea Intake with Bone Mineral Density and Hip Fracture: A Meta-Analysis. Medicina, 59(6), 1177. https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina59061177

 

Sonal ShrivastavaLast Seen: Apr 14, 2024 @ 10:49pm 22AprUTC

Sonal Shrivastava

@Sonal-Shrivastava

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