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Secondary pollutants

Adarsh KanojiyaLast Seen: Mar 14, 2024 @ 3:28pm 15MarUTC
Adarsh Kanojiya
@aadarsh_rk

28th February 2024 | 3 Views
Milyin » 569762 » Secondary pollutants

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Secondary pollutants

• Smog: is a kind of air pollution; the word “smog” is synchrony of two words, smoke
and fog. Classic smog results from large amounts of coal burning in an area
caused by a mixture of smoke and sulfur dioxide. Modern pollution does not usually
come from coal but from vehicular and industrial emissions acted on in the
atmosphere by ultraviolet light from the sun to form secondary pollutants that also
combine with the primary emissions to form photochemical smog.

• Ground-level ozone (O3): formed from NOx and VOCs. Ozone (O3) is a vital
constituent of the troposphere. It is also an essential constituent of some areas of
the stratosphere commonly known as the Ozone layer. Photochemical and
chemical reactions involving it drive many of the chemical processes that occur in
the atmosphere by day and night. At abnormally high concentrations brought about

by human activities (mostly the combustion of fossil fuel), it is a pollutant and a
constituent of smog.
• Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN): similarly formed from NOx and VOCs.
Minor air pollutants include many little hazardous air pollutants—a variety of
persistent organic pollutants, which can attach to particulate matter. Persistent organic
pollutants (POPs) are organic compounds resistant to environmental degradation
through chemical, biological, and photolytic processes. Because of this, they have
been observed to persist in the environment, to be capable of long-range transport,
bioaccumulate in human and animal tissue, biomagnify in food chains, and to have
potentially significant impacts on human health and the environment.

Sources of Air Pollution
Stationary and Area Sources
A stationary air pollution source refers to an emission source that does not move, also
known as a point source. Stationary sources include factories, power plants, dry
cleaners and degreasing operations. The term area source is used to describe many
small air pollution sources located together whose individual emissions may be below
thresholds of concern, but whose collective emissions can be significant. Residential
wood burners are an excellent example of a small source, but they can contribute to
local and regional air pollution levels when combined with many other short sources.
Area sources can also be thought of as non-point sources, such as housing
developments, dry lakebeds, and landfills.

Mobile Sources
A mobile source of air pollution refers to a source that is capable of moving under its
power. In general, mobile references imply “on-road” transportation, including vehicles
such as cars, sport utility vehicles, and buses. Besides, there is also a “non-road” or
“off-road” category that includes gas-powered lawn tools and mowers, farm and
construction equipment, recreational vehicles, boats, planes, and trains.

Agricultural Sources
Agricultural operations, which raise animals and grow crops, can generate emissions
of gases and particulate matter. For example, animals confined to a barn or restricted
area (rather than field grazing), produce large amounts of manure. Manure emits
various gases, particularly ammonia into the air. This ammonia can be ejected from
the animal houses, manure storage areas, or the land after the manure is applied. In
crop production, the misapplication of fertilizers, herbicides, and pesticides can
potentially result in an aerial drift of these materials and harm may be caused.

Natural Sources
Although industrialization and the use of motor vehicles are overwhelmingly the most
significant contributors to air pollution, there are important natural sources of
“pollution”. Wildland fires, dust storms, and volcanic activity also contribute gases and
particulates to our atmosphere.
Unlike the air mentioned above, people or their activities do not cause pollution
sources, natural “air pollution”. An erupting volcano emits particulate matter and
gases; forest and prairie fires can emit large quantities of “pollutants”; plants and trees
naturally emit VOCs that are oxidized, and form aerosols cause a natural blue haze,
and dust storms can create large amounts of particulate matter. Wild animals in their
natural habitat are also considered natural sources of “pollution”. The National Park
Service recognizes that each of these sources emits gases and particulate matter into
the atmosphere, but we regard these as constituents resulting from natural processes.

Effects of Air Pollution
A variety of air pollutants have known or suspected harmful effects on human health
and the environment. In most areas of Europe, these pollutants are principally the
combustion products from space heating, power generation, or motor vehicle traffic.
Pollutants from these sources may not only prove a problem near these sources but
can travel long distances.

Health Effects:
Exposure to air pollution is associated with numerous effects on human health,
including pulmonary, cardiac, vascular, and neurological impairments. The health
effects vary significantly from person to person. High-risk groups such as the elderly,
infants, pregnant women, and sufferers from chronic heart and lung diseases are more
susceptible to air pollution. Children are at greater risk because they are generally
more active outdoors, and their lungs are still developing. Exposure to air pollution can
cause both acute (short-term) and chronic (long-term) health effects. Acute effects are
usually immediate and often reversible when exposure to the pollutant ends. Some
acute health effects include eye irritation, Headache, and nausea. Chronic effects are
generally not direct and tend not to be reversible when exposure to the pollutant ends.
Some chronic health effects include decreased lung capacity and lung cancer resulting
from long-term exposure to toxic air pollutants. The scientific techniques for assessing
air pollution’s health impacts include air pollutant monitoring, exposure assessment,
dosimetry, toxicology, and epidemiology.
Although in humans, pollutants can affect the skin, eyes and other body systems, they
involve the respiratory system primarily. Both gaseous and particulate air pollutants
can have adverse effects on the lungs. The lungs are the organs responsible for
absorbing oxygen from the air and removing carbon dioxide from the blood-stream.
Damage to the lungs from air pollution can inhibit this process and contribute to
respiratory diseases such as bronchitis, emphysema, and cancer. This can also put
an additional burden on the heart and circulatory system.

Adarsh KanojiyaLast Seen: Mar 14, 2024 @ 3:28pm 15MarUTC

Adarsh Kanojiya

@aadarsh_rk

Following27
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